What is EDEMA
The body is made of millions of cells, most of them linked together to form tissues. The cells are filled with (and surrounded by) fluid. Therefore, the majority of a person's body weight (about 65%) consists of water. Oedema is fluid retention. It occurs when there is too much fluid (mainly water) in the body's tissues, causing swelling to occur in the affected area. The swelling is usually related to the venous (veins) system or the lymphatic system (tubes that carry lymph, a fluid that helps fight infection and clear fluid).

Oedema can affect: the hands, arms, feet, ankles and legs (swelling is most common in these areas), the brain (known as cerebral oedema), and the eyes (known as macular oedema).

Normally, the amount of water in the body is determined by the difference between fluid that is taken in and fluid that is taken out (discharged). Fluid is taken into the body by eating and drinking, and by water produced by bodily processes. It is discharged from the body in the form of urine, faeces, sweat and non-visible perspiration, for example, when breathing out. Factors such as the surrounding air temperature and strenuous exercise can affect the amount of water that is taken in and out of the body. In people with oedema, the excess fluid can be caused by a number of factors. This is because oedema is not a condition itself, but is often a symptom of an underlying condition. For example, it can be a sign of kidney disease or lymphoedema. Lymphoedema is a type of chronic swelling that occurs when the lymph fluid doesn't fully drain away from the tissues. Oedema can also sometimes be caused by lifestyle factors, such as pregnancy, or a high dietary salt intake.


Aceticum acidum
In dropsies, standing midway between Arsenic and Apis, distinguished from both in the characteristic thirst, and the predominance of the gastric symptoms.

The skin is waxy and transparent like alabaster ; the urine is scanty and albuminous, or with a dark sediment like coffee grounds. Absence of thirst, bruised feeling of abdominal walls, stinging pains, urine scanty, etc. Child lies in torpor; delirium; sudden shrilling cries; squinting; grinding teeth; boring head in pillow; one side twitching, the other paralyzed; head wet from sweating; urine scanty, milky. Redness and swelling, with stinging burning pain in the eyes, eyelids, ears, face, lips, tongue, throat, anus, testicles. Very busy, restless; changing kind of work, with awkwardness; breaking things. Enlargement of right ovary, with pain in pectoral region, and cough. Burning, stinging pains like bee stings, occurring occasionally. Great soreness when touched on pit of stomach, under the ribs, on the abdomen. Absence of thirst, with scanty urination. Oedema, or dropsy, without thirst. Skin usually white, almost transparent (With ovarian dropsy). Stinging and burning pains in the face, throat, urethra, ovaries, piles, tumors, panaritium, carbuncles, indurations, schirrhus, open cancers, etc. [Aceticum acidum compared: There is a waxy look about the face and limbs and a great predominance of gastric symptoms, thirst and water-brash.]

Apocynum can
In dropsical conditions, such as hydrocephalus and abdominal dropsies, where it is given as a diuretic ; the principal indication is a copious yellow or brownish diarrhoea, expelled with great force, and a weak, all-gone feeling in the abdomen ; oppression about the epigastrium and chest. In all varieties of dropsy, both idiopathic and secondary, especially when dependent upon disease of the liver. Irritable stomach, drinking causes distress, though thirst is great. Dropsy, especially from liver affections. [Difference between Apocynum can, Arsenicum and Apis: Apocynum can has unquenchable thirst. Arsenic wants little and often, Apis thirstless. The bloating in Apocynum is on the side on which he lies. Arsenic in the extremities. Apis under the eyes.]

In all forms of dropsy ; transparent, waxy skin, intolerable thirst, spells of suffocation, worse at night, great dyspnoea. In heart disease due to hypertrophy of heart. Dread of death when alone, or on going to bed; great restlessness and utter prostration. Unquenchable, burning thirst, drinks often, but little at a time; water disagrees. Disordered stomach after eating fruit or ice cream. Violent burning pains in stomach and abdomen with intolerable anguish. Black stools, thin and watery, with great prostration. Oppression of breathing, prostration and other ailments from walking fast, or ascending a height. Burning pains, especially in inner organs, skin and ulcers, relieved by heat. Bran-like, dry, scaly eruptions, with itching and burning, the latter increased by scratching, followed by bleeding. Suffering worse after midnight. Poisoning from decayed or morbid animal matter, by innoculation, inhalation or swallowing.

Aurum mur
With albuminuria ; with intermittent fever; from diseases of liver or spleen.

Bryonia then Sulphur
Oedema of legs during pregnancy.

Cactus grandiflorus
Oedema of left hand, foot and leg. Sensation of constriction in the heart, as if an iron band prevented its normal movement.

With debility and anemia. Intense throbbing headache after excessive hemorrhage. Periodical prosopalgia, pains excessive, skin sensitive to touch, mostly Infra-orbital and maxilary branches. Uncomfortable distension of the abdomen with a wish to belch, or a sensation in the abdomen as if it were packed full, not in the least relieved by eructation. After eating fruit undigested stools pass involuntarily. Diarrhoea with undigested stools. Black stools, thin and watery; great prostration; no pain. Cough with granular expectoration during the day or in the evening, not at night or in the morning. Profuse debilitating night sweats. Debility or other complaints after loss of blood and other fluids, particularly from nursing, salivation, hemorrhoids, etc., or leucorrhea, night sweats, seminal emissions, onanism, etc. Hemorrhage of dark clotted blood from nose and other parts, in anaemic subject, with ringing in the ears, great weakness, etc.

Dropsies from cardiac affections ; urine scanty, dark, hot ; infiltration of scrotum and penis. Feeble pulse, feeling as if the heart stood still ; constant desire to take a deep breath. Post-scarlatinal nephritis. Respiration irregular, difficult, performed by frequent deep sighs. Sudden sensation as if the heart stood still, with great anxiety. Extremely slow pulse.

Kali hydroiodicum
Oedema of lungs , frothy expectoration (bright's disease). Consumption.

The urine is dark and contains albumen, and the skin covering the oedematous parts is dark, bluish black. Tongue trembles when protruded, or catches behind the teeth. Sensation of a swelling in the throat, as if two large lumps came together, on empty swallowing; better on swallowing food. Tonsilitis worse on left side, choking when swallowing; or, when swallowing pains from the throat to the ear; neck very sensitive to touch. Uterus will not bear contact, even of the bed clothes; they cause uneasiness in the abdomen; no tenderness. Menses at the regular time, but too short and feeble. Uterine and ovarian pains, relieved by a flow of blood. Suddenly something runs from the neck to the larynx and interrupts breathing; awakens him at night; spasm of glottis. Aching pain in the shin bones. Hot flashes, metrorrhagia, and other troubles during climacteric period. Most symptoms aggravated after sleep. Great physical and mental exhaustion in morning on rising.

Dropsies of lower half of body from liver disease ; legs swollen and covered with ulcers, from which serum oozes. Lycopodium is useful in edema / ascites when it is the result of alcoholic drinks, venesection or when it follows intermittent fever or liver diseases. Emaciation of the upper part of the body while the lower is enormously swollen, pain in the back previous to urination, much red sand in the urine, pale earthy complexion, restless sleep, awaking frightened, constipation. Desire for acids and fish. One foot hot the other cold. Hungry but soon satisfied, soon fills up. Blue margins around the eyes. Frequent jerking of limbs day and night. Enteralgia, flatulency eructations do not relieve but the passage of flatus does. Haemorrhage from the rectum even after a soft stool. Distension in region of spleen, painful and emaciated upper extremities, lower limbs edematous. Excessive thirst especially at night. Low spiritedness. Loss of sexual power.Excessive fullness and distension of the abdomen, with flatulence, relieved by eructations. Hunger, but a small quantity of food seems to fill him full. Continuous rumbling and rolling in the abdomen. Severe backache, relieved by passing urine, urine deposits a red, sandy sediment. Fan-like motion of the alae nasi in respiratory diseases, especially of children and young persons. Aggravation of the symptoms from 4 to 8 p.m. Humid suppurating eruptions, especially on occiput and face, crusts thick, easily bleeding, oozing a fetid moisture, worse after scratching and from warmth. Much flatus accumulates here and there in the abdomen. in the hypochondria, in the back, in region of ribs and chest, causing tension, bubbling and gurgling, relieved by empty eructations.

Look pale and anemic. Face bloated. Bloating all around eyes or all over the face, with diarrhea in nephritis, with anemia.. Pulsations, sticking and burning in the brain. As soon as water becomes warm in the stomach, it is thrown up. Chronic painless diarrhoea of undigested food, with much thirst during the night. Frequent diarrhoea during cholera time; cholerina. Constipation; feces slender, long, dry, tough and hard, like a dog's; voided with difficulty. Cannot talk on account of pain in larynx. Pains in chest with coughing, relieved by external pressure. Dry tickling cough in the evening, with tightness across the chest. Trembling of the whole body while coughing. Can lie only on right side. Small wounds bleed much. Cough worse in evening and night, from change from warm to cold air. Most symptoms aggravated before midnight, and during a thunder storm.

Rhus tox.
Oedema of penis vulva and about the mouth.

Acute dropsical swellings with supression of urine.

Edema from congestion of kidneys, with kidney affections, prostration. Nephritis with burning, drawing pains in region of kidneys; heaviness and pressure; strangury; scanty, bloody urine.

Oedema of limbs and face without any apparent cause.

Oedema due to complete failure of kidney , which stops secreting urine. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also known as polycystic kidney syndrome).   


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